Beta oxidation of fatty acids
|Fatty acids provide highly efficient energy storage, storing much more energy for their weight than carbohydrates like glucose. Fatty acids are stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue, in which each triglyceride molecule contains three fatty acids and one glycerol. Triglycerides form fatty droplets that exclude water and take up minimal space. Fatty acids are also more highly reduced than carbohydrates, so they provide more energy during oxidation. The efficiency of energy storage in fats is probably an important reason why animals store most of their energy as fats and only a small amount of energy as carbohydrates.
When glucose levels are low during long periods between meals the enzyme glucagon secreted by the pancreas stimulates adipose lipase activity to release fatty acids from triglycerides. Epinephrine can stimulate the same activity to release energy during the fight or flight response. Once released, these fatty acids travel through the blood to other tissues such as muscle where they are oxidized to provide energy through the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway. Since fatty acid beta-oxidation occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, long-chain fatty acids must be actively transported from the cytoplasm into mitochondria by carnitine palmitoyl transferase (see Pathway).
The chemical energy contained in fatty acids is released through the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria. The beta-oxidation pathway includes four reactions that occur in repeating cycles with each fatty acid molecule. In each cycle, a fatty acid is progressively shortened by two carbons as it is oxidized and its energy captured by the reduced energy carriers NADH and FADH2. At the end of each cycle of four reactions, one acetyl-CoA two-carbon unit is released from the end of the fatty acid, which then goes through another round of beta-oxidation, continuing to oxidize and shorten even-chain fatty acids until they are entirely converted to acetyl-CoA. Fatty acids with an odd number of carbons in the acyl chain are left at the end with propionyl-CoA, with 3 carbons, which cannot enter another round of beta-oxidation. The propionyl-CoA produced in this manner is converted to succinyl-CoA that then enters the Krebs cycle (see pathway).
The acetyl-CoA generated in beta-oxidation enters the Krebs cycle, where it is further oxidized to CO2, producing more reduced energy carriers, NADH and FADH2 (See Krebs cycle pathway). These carriers produced in the Krebs cycle, along with those produced directly in beta-oxidation, transfer their energy to the electron transport chain where they drive the creation of the proton gradient that supports mitochondrial ATP production. Another destination of acetyl-CoA is the production of ketone bodies by the liver that are transported to tissues like the heart and brain...
Read electro-mechanical engineering blog
You might also like
Beta-Oxidation of Fatty Acids
Recombinant Escherichia coli Fatty acid oxidation complex subunit alpha (fadJ)
- GeneName: fadJ; ECK2335; JW2338; yfcX
- Fatty acid oxidation complex subunit alpha
- Species: Escherichia coli (strain K12); *Storage Buffer: Tris-based buffer,50% glycerol
- SeqPos: 1-714
- Storage: Store at -20 degree C, for extended storage, conserve at -20 degree C or -80 degree C.
Beta Oxidation of Fatty acids
PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS SEED OIL ORGANIC. 100% Pure / Natural / Undiluted / Virgin / Unrefined Cold Pressed Carrier oil. 1 Fl.oz.- 30 ml. For Skin, Hair, Lip and Nail Care. "One of the richest in magnesium, amino acids, vitamins C, E, K and B, beta carotene, iron, calcium, potassium, Omega 3, 6 and 9 Essential Fatty Acids and many other nutrients. This oil is a very potent antioxidant." by Botanical Beauty
- ORGANIC PRICKLY PEAR -CACTUS SEED OIL is an excellent choice for mature, aging or damaged skin. It contains skin-softening vitamin E, and vitamin K to reduce dark...
- ORGANIC PRICKLY PEAR -CACTUS SEED OIL helps damaged skin conditions like ACNE, PSORIASIS, ECZEMA, SUNBURN, BLEMISHES , STRETCH MARKS, CUTS, SCARS and ITCHY, SCALY...
- ORGANIC PRICKLY PEAR - CACTUS SEED OIL has anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antihistamine properties, it can helps in inflammation of the joints muscles and arthritis.
- ORGANIC PRICKLY PEAR - CACTUS SEED OIL helps hair problems including dryness, brittleness, thinning, or splitting. ORGANIC PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS SEED OIL strengthens...
- ORGANIC PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS SEED OIL helps nail problems such as weak or brittle nails. ORGANIC PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS SEED OIL can be used to moisturize dry and damaged...
Twinlab Acetyl L-Carnitine 500mg, 120 Capsules
Health and Beauty (Twinlab)
- One bottle containing 120 L-Carnitine capsules
- Enhances cognitive function and physical performance
- Well tolerated by the most highly allergic individuals
- Contains no added sugars, salt, preservatives or tablet binders, colorings and coatings
- Take 4 capsules per day as a nutritional supplement